Timurid Empire from ancient history

Timurid Empire Map

Timurid Empire Map

Timurid Empire was firmly established by Timur. Known from the ancient history, the Timurid Empire was formed in Persia and Central Asia, when a number of areas conquered by Timur or Tamerlane.

Timur conquered the vast majority of central Asia from 1363. He has won the Transoxania and Khwarazm. In the 1360s, he had gained control of the Western Chagatai Khanate, was officially subordinate to the Khan, but in reality, the Khans were dependent on him. In the 15th and 16th centuries, the Western Chagatai Khans were influenced by the Timurid rulers.

The rise of the Timurid Empire

It is known from ancient history, in 1380, Timur started the campaign in the westwards and attacked several successive states of Illkhanate. By 1389, he overthrew the Kartidis from Herat and proceeded towards the mainland of Persia. He captured the Isfahan in 1387. In the year 1393, the Muzaffarids dynasty was overthrown and the Jalayirids were expelled from Baghdad. In 1394-95, he achieved victory over the Kipchak Khanate or Golden Horde. Timur runs the Georgia campaign. Then his sovereignty was established in Caucasus. He won the Multan and Dipalpur in 1398. He attacked Delhi. In 1400-1401, he conquered Aleppo, Damascus and Eastern Anatolia. In 1401, he attacked Baghdad. In 1402 he won the battle of Ankara with the Ottomans. Due to civil war in the Ottoman Empire, he became the most powerful ruler among the Muslim rulers of the time. Timur established the capital at Samarkand.

Taimur appointed his sons and grandsons to the main governorship in different places of Timurid Empire. After his death in 1405, many rulers became virtually independent. However, the rulers of Timurid Empire continued dominant Central Asia, including Persia, Mesopotamia, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Afghanistan, and Pakistan. Despite this, the area of Anatolia and Caucasus was lost by the 1430s. Samarkand and Herat became the center of Persian culture because of wartime damage in Persian cities. The cost of Timurid Empire amounts to the death of possibly 17 million people. 
Shahrukh Mirza, fourth ruler of Timurid Empire, dealt with Kara Koyunlu, who worked to expand in Iran. However, Jahan Shah (bey of the kara Koyunlu) migrated to eastern Iran in 1447 AD and briefly captured Herat in 1458. After the death of Jahan Shah, bey of the AK Koyunlu, Ujhan Hasan, conquered the holding of the Kara Koyunlu in Iran between 1469 and 1471.
Fall of the Timurid Empire

By 1500, the Timurid Empire divided by most of their territory lost. Regarding the control of the Shia-based Safavid dynasty in Persia, Caucasus, Mesopotamia and Eastern Anatolia, Most of the regions of Central Asia have occupied the Uzbeks under the leadership of Muhammad Shaybani. Shaybani captured the cities of Samarkand and Herat in 1505 and 1507. He founded the Khanate of Bukhara. Babur, a descendant of Taimur established the Mughal Empire in 1526. By the 17th century, the Mughal Empire expanded almost all over India. Later, in 1857, the demise of by abolishing the Mughal Empire ended the Timurid Empire.

The culture of the Timurid Empire

The people of the Timurid Empire originally originated from the Barlas tribe. It was the tribe of Turkeicized Mongol origin. They embraced Persian culture and accepted Islam. As a result, the dual characteristics of the Turco-Mongol source and Persian culture are seen as literary, artistic and courtly in the Timurid Empire.

The language of the Timurid Empire

During the Timurid era, Turko-Mongolian was accustomed to Chagatai language throughout the region. However, Persian was the main language of this era. Taimur was already steeped in Persian culture. In most of his occupied territories, the Persian language became the main medium of administration and literature. Diwane's language was the Persian and the office-bearers who had to be experienced in Persian regardless of their nation. Persian became the official state language of Timurid Empire and served as the language of literature as well as, history, letters.  But the Chagatai language was the Taimuri family and the native language. On the other hand, the Arabic language has played a role as a language of knowledge, science, philosophy and religious subjects.


Among the Persian literature of the Timur era, the biography of Taimur, written in Persian by Sharafud-Din Ali Yazdi, was "Zafarnameh", which was the most notable sign. This book is based on an older "Zafarnameh", written by Taimur's personal biographer Nizam al-Din Shami during his lifetime. Nur ud-DinJami was the most famous poet of the Timurid era. Along with this, various astronomical works of the Timurid sultan Ulugh beg were written in the Persian language. However, most of his writings were written in Arabic. Taiyurid ruler Baysungur ordered the making of a new version of Persian epic Shahnameh. It is known as Shahnameh of Baysungur.


The Timurids have played a role in the development of Turkic literature. A national Literature was developed in the language of Chagatai. Among the poets of Chagatai were Mir Ali Sher Nawai, Sultan Husayn baygara, and Emperor Babur. They encouraged other Turkish poets to write in Chagatai as well as Arabic and Persian. Among the rich piece of Chagatai language, The Baburnama is one of the autobiographical works, written by Emperor Babur.


The golden age of Persian painting began during the reign of the Timurids.The Mongolian ethnicity of the Chaghatayid and Timurid Khan were the sources of the artistic description of Persian art during medieval times.

The architecture of the Timurid Empire

There is many landmarks of Seljuqs tradition subsistent in Timurid architecture. In this era, they used the turquoise and blue tiles forming intricate linear and geometric patterns to decorate the building. In Central Asia, Timurid architecture was the pinnacle of Islamic art. Timur and his successors in Samarkand and Herat have reduced the impact of the Illkhanate. Among the architectural structures, Timur's mausoleum Gur-e-Amir in Samarkand is one of the famous architecture. There is also a Persian style Madrasa and mosque by Ulug Beg is observed nearby, in the center of the ancient town.

Rulers of the Timurid Empire

Ø Timur
Ø Pir Muhammad ibn Jahangir
Ø Khalil Sultan
Ø Shahrukh Mirza
Ø Ulugh Beg
Ø Abdal-Latif Mirza
Ø Abdallah mirza
Ø Sultan Muhammad bin Baysongor
Ø Abul-Qasim Babur Mirza
Ø Sultan Ahmed Mirza
Ø Sultan Mahmud Mirza
Ø Mirza shah Mahmud
Ø Ibrahim Mirza bin Ala-ud-Daulah
Ø Abu Said Mirza
Ø Sultan Husayn Mirza Baygara
Ø Yadgar Muhammad Mirza
Ø Badi al-Zaman Mirza

 Governors of the Timurid Empire

Ø  Qaidu bin Pir Muhammad bin Jahāngīr 808–811 AH
Ø  Abu Bakr bin Mirain Shah 1405–07 (807–09 AH)
Ø  Pir Muhammad bin Umar Sheikh 807–12 AH
Ø  Rustam 812–17 AH
Ø  Sikandar 812–17 AH
Ø  Alaudaullah 851 AH
Ø  Abu Bakr bin Muhammad 851 AH
Ø  Sultān Muhammad 850–55 AH
Ø  Muhammad bin Hussayn 903–06 AH
Ø  Abul A'la Fereydūn Hussayn 911–12 AH
Ø  Muhammad Mohsin Khān 911–12 AH
Ø  Muhammad Zamān Khān 920–23 AH
Ø  Shāhrukh II bin Abu Sa’id 896–97 AH
Ø  Ulugh Beg Kābulī 873–907 AH
Ø  Sultān Uways 1508–22 (913–27 AH)

Historical era of the Timurid Empire
Ancient history
ü Timur begins conquests, 1363
ü Establishment of Timurid Empire,1370
ü Westward expansion begins,1380
ü Battle of Ankara, 1402
ü Fall of Samarkand, 1505
ü Fall of Herat,1507
ü Founding of the Mughal Empire, 1526  

Area of the Timurid Empire

1405 est., 4,400,000 km2 (1,700,000 sq mi)

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