Timur| a brief biography of Muslim conqueror

Timur Lang

Timur Lang was the founder of the Timurid Empire. In historical documents, he is widely known as Amir Timur and Tamerlane. He was the first ruler of the Timurid dynasty and Turco- Mongol conqueror. As well as his name is mentioned as a patron of art, literature, and architecture.

Tamerlane Statue

Tamerlane Statue

January 1405. The unbearable cold came down across Kazakhstan. All the walkways have become undeserving because of heavy snow. Birds and cattle have died due to freezing cold in the winter. In the hostile environment, a group of explorers was seen moving towards China. Timur is the leader of the team filled with army, elephant, and horse.The battalion going to conquer China.

Amir Timur

Amir Timur, whose name hear make tremble the throne of any king of the world, his condition is not quite well. On this morning, his body temperature increased more than usual. The team's physician examined Timur. Flutter shadow on their faces. If he does not retreat it is impossible to save him at this time. But obstinate Timur gets start yawn in anger. Ultimately, the winter of Kazakhstan will be defeated! He resolved in his decision, ‘Do not retreat. Timur could never turn back’. So despite the many adversities, his campaign was continued. But on the way, hundreds of soldiers fell into the lap of death. Timur’s condition also continued to deteriorate day by day. Finally, Timur defeated. He broke down to Kazakhstan in Otrar. Due to winter, it was impossible to go back. At last, on the 18th of February, the terror monster Timur Lang of Asia drowned into death by the cold paw in Kazakhstan. The King of Kings was not able to defeat him, but little cold showed it how to do. Timur was brought back to Samarkand for purpose of the funeral. According to the last wish, his tomb was inscribed with big letters- ‘when I rise from the dead, the world shall tremble.’

Tamerlane's tomb in Samarkand

Tamerlane’s tomb in Samarkand

Timur lang history

The names of many rulers, including the Alexander the Great, Genghis Khan, Kublai Khan, Julius Caesar, Timur Lang, will come out in the list of the heroes which ruled the world. But like other rulers, He was not a son of a royal family. Little landlord's son, Timur, gradually climbed to the top of power, was an incarnation of horror among other rulers for his cruelty. Even after death, he told the world that he would return.

A midnight on 8 April 1336, Lamp in every house of Uzbekistan has gone out. Uzbek people dipped in deep sleep except for a family in Kesh city about 50 miles away from Samarkand. Their lamp exhausted. The householder of the family is little worried because his wife's labor pain has started, he is strolling in the courtyard. People were sent to the city to find a midwife, but they still did not return. He is praying to God inwardly. Eventually, God responded to his call. His wife gives birth a baby boy while the first light of dawn has bloomed.

Timur meaning

The name of the son is given ‘Timur’, which means 'iron’. The European descriptions of Timur's name - "Tamerlane" or "Tamberlane" - are based on the Turkic sobriquet Timur-i-leng, meaning "Timur the Lame." Timur’s mother name is Tekine Khatun, father name is Targay, was the chief of the Barlas tribe.

Perhaps for proof of his name Timur or 'iron', he grew up as a daredevil and brave teenager.  Even He formed a little robber group. They began to loot small things in their area. He entered the strong and handsome young age. With age, his strength and courage grew both and finally, he formed a strong gang. The wealthy people of the area were terrified by the gang of Timur.

Disputed reason for Timur’s lameness

According to the historians, on the way back, in one sheep- robbery raid Tamerlane was wounded in the leg and shoulder by the arrow of shepherds.  Afterward, he could not bend his right knee or lift his right arm. His right hand and right leg are permanently becoming disabled. From then on he became known as ‘Timur the lame’ or 'Taimur-i-Leng'.

Tamerlane's face

A reconstruction of Tamerlane's face

Rise to power

Though one leg was lame he did not go down rather became more violent like a wounded tiger. About one hundred years ago Chengish Khan ruled the whole world. Timur believed in his heart, he would rule the world like Genghis. So he took the training of military tactics with a lame leg. Through the hard work, he became very skilled in the use of arms.

When Timur is a young man, political instability arises in the conflict of power across Central Asia (the Amu Darya and Syr Darya river area). There were often wars between different nomadic clans and local leaders. On the other hand, local leaders ruled much based on Western ideology. They abandoned Genghis Khan, Kublai Khan's regime. For this reason, the local people were dissatisfied with them. In 1347, Amir Kazgan seized power from the local leader Chagatai ruler Boroloday, but in 1358 he was killed.

Tughluk Timur Khan came to power now. He appointed Timur Lang as the ruler of the Barlas region. Since taking power, Timur was plotting against Tughluk. But unfortunately, he was caught. Tughluk Timur ousted him. That time Timur Lang formed an alliance with Amir Hussein, grandson of Amir Kazgan, and married Hussein’s sister Aljai Turkanaga.

Timur and Hussein banded together defeated Ilyas Khoja, son of Tughluk Timur in 1364 and sat on the Central Asian throne. Timur and Hussein were jointly ruling. But Timur was not satisfied. He was looking for an opportunity to defeat Hussein. Meanwhile, Timur's wife died in 1370. This death came as a blessing for him. Now there were no family ties with Hussein. Timur killed Amir Hussein and declared himself as the sovereign of Central Asia. Timur’s rule begins.

 Timurid Empire

He wanted to be Khan of the Mongol empire. But because he had no family relations with Genghis Khan, he ruled the Mongols as an Amir. Whereas was highly skilled in strategy. So, in a few years of power gain, became the lord of whole Central Asia. But Timur wants more. He wants to rule the world like Genghis Khan.

Timur opened the map of Genghis Khan. He took a glance at the map which enhanced his desire for world conquest. The next day he set out with his battalion. Upon hearing the news of Timur's campaign, Mongol Khan Toktamysh prays for help to him. Toktamysh Khan lost his control over Russia’s throne in the hands of enemies. Timur Lang attacked Russia and gave back the lost throne to Toktamysh Khan. Then he left for Persia. The Persian operation of Timur began with the capture of Herat city.

At the start, the Karatad Empire’s capital Herat expressed reluctance to surrender to Timur while he was waiting for this opportunity. He ordered to kill all the citizens of Herat cruelly. Timur's army implements order over the Herat and that turns into death-city in a short time. Finally, in 1383, Herat surrendered to Timur.

After this, he continued to move further west with his forces. Meanwhile, Timur's atrocities have reached the region of Persia. He keeps footprint on Tehran's land. Tehran unhesitatingly surrendered to Timur. Gradually, some parts of Asia Minor, Syria, Afghanistan and Iraq came under his control.

When Timur was busy occupying the country, he heard the news that leaders from different regions are rebelling against him. The angry Timur stopped the campaign and his forces killed thousands of rebels in a systematic attempt to subdue their struggle. After the rebels killed in Afghanistan, he built a tower. The tower was constructed out of live men heaped on top of one another. To punish a revolt in Isfahan, he cemented 70,000 people together with bricks and mortar into minarets. Thus, in the year 1385, the whole of Persia come into possession of Timur.

In 1387, Timur's ally, Tokhtamysh attacked Central Asia. To save his own house, he returned to his own territory. Tokhtamysh Khan was defeated by Timur's huge force. Tokhtamysh Khan returned to Russia In 1392, Timur again set out towards the West and conquered Iraq. The glory of the Mongol Khans 'Golden Horde' or ‘Ilkhanate’ had been defeated woefully to Timur. Standing in front of Moscow, he laughed for win gratification, was nevertheless hungry. On that day, Timur plotted his next step to win India.

The -breadth of the Timurid Empire

The breadth of the Timurid Empire

Timur in India

India will always remember Timur for his atrocity. After the death of Feroz Shah, the inner conflict has seen among many rulers of India.Clever Timur did not want to miss this opportunity. At the end of 1398, he reached on the bank of the Indus River with almost 90 thousand soldiers. Indian people got scared in his presence.

After reaching Sindh River, Timur became aggressive in the killing. He reaches out to Delhi by killing around 100,000 ordinary people. Delhi's Sultan Nasiruddin Shah tughlaq attacked him by his elephant forces. Intelligent Timur has applied a new technique. He Loaded haystack on thousand camels backs. Then set the hay on fire and turn the camels towards the elephant. Sultan's elephants were afraid of burning camel aggression. The situation is reversed; elephants turned back and attacked the sultan. Sultan was defeated by his own forces. Timur's army made the flood of blood throughout Delhi. He did not rule India rather looted many valuable resources from India and took it to Samarkand. In the operation of India, Taimur got the news of losing Baghdad's occupation. In 1399, Timur again attacked Baghdad. As always, he easily conquered Baghdad. Timur's cruelty increased further. At his command, the 20,000 rebels of Baghdad were beheaded.

Timur in Ottoman Empire

In 1401, Timur started his campaign to Turkey. Sultan Bayezid got ready with largest armies after hearing this news. In 1402, the two forces were confronted in the Turkish capital Ankara. On that day the whole world was fascinated by the tactics of Taimur. The powerful Ottoman Empire had been defeated woefully to Timur. Sultan Bayezid was captured in the war. Later, he died in captivity. Following this war, Egypt's empire demonstrated allegiance to Timur. The Ottoman Empire was a threat to many European countries. As a result of the Ottoman victory of Timur, France, Spain and other countries have established ties with him. Almost half of the world came under his control. Genghis Khan was the idol of Taimur, following him, he ruled the empire with valor. Taimur's heroism spreads throughout the world. Independent emperors were panicky, whenever he could attack them.

Other Important facts about Tamerlane

A few important information related to Timur has been recorded in various books and historical manuscripts. Although historians disagree with some information most of the information is essential for understanding Timur's personal life philosophy. Some of the most notable information collected from the crowd of much information given below.


1. In 1941, a Russian archaeologist has excavated Timur's cemetery to end thedispute about his lameness. The researchers found that fracture in some parts of his waist bone as well as two fingers missing from the right hand.

2. His tomb was inscribed with big letters- ‘whosoever disturbs my tomb will unleash an invader more terrible than I’ and ‘when I rise from the dead, the world shall tremble.’

3. under the leadership of Adolf Hitler Nazi killed around 35 million (according to somebody 50 million) people throughout the world. Hitler invades the Soviet Union. Just two days later, Tamarlan's grave was opened and Timur’s remains were sent to Moscow. In comparison, indeed Hitler was more outrageous invader than Tamarlan.

4. Within a short time after the reburial of Timur, the Russian army won over Hitler in Stalingrad.

5.     Timur’s army killed about 17 million people, which was about 5% of the world's population during his time.

6.     Timur Lang asserted himself as the 'sword of Islam'. But historians did not find any evidence of his personal faith. According to historians, he used Islam only as a means to consolidate and exert power.

7.     Taimur Lang had a habit to track down enemies weaknesses while intends to attack like his ideal Genghis Khan.Taimur was very sharp-witted in the field of strategy and politics.

8.     Rough Amir Timur was enthusiastic about art in his personal life. Under his patronage, many beautiful buildings and sculptures are built around the world.

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